For many pond owners, having fish is a must as they bring the pond to life. Even in a small garden pond, you can have fish, but it’s essential to be mindful of how many fish you introduce, depending on your pond’s size. While goldfish are classic choices, there are other suitable freshwater fish that can even contribute to pond maintenance. You can introduce multiple fish species, but ensure they are compatible. This guide provides insights into what to consider when introducing fish to your pond.
Creating the Right Conditions for the Fish
Before buying or receiving fish from other pond enthusiasts, ensure your pond is ready to receive them without causing stress. As fish are sensitive to noise, all pond construction should be complete. Ideally, you should have a stream or creek, which contributes to oxygenation and pond cleaning. Create it before introducing fish. To ensure fish survive the winter, the pond should be at least one meter deep, with a sufficiently large deep-water zone. You should also install pond equipment like filters and pumps before the fish arrive.
If you don’t have aquatic plants yet, introduce them before getting fish. Opt for plants that provide hiding spots for fish and, in some cases, serve as food. Some suitable plants for fish ponds include hornwort, waterweed, and water milfoil. These plants aid water purification and increase oxygen levels. You can also add water lilies. Use plant baskets and low-nutrient pond substrate with a layer of gravel.
Before introducing fish, ensure your water parameters are correct. Water should have a pH level between 6.5 to 8.5 and carbonate hardness between 8 to 14. Conduct a water test before purchasing fish and make any necessary adjustments.
Don’t Forget the Filtration System
A filtration system is essential, especially for fish that contribute to a clean pond. It’s advisable for all pond owners with fish. Fish waste and uneaten food can lead to sludge buildup and water issues during hot summer spells. A biological filter, containing beneficial bacteria, is a good choice to maintain water quality. The filter size and pump capacity depend on your pond’s size. The filter should be periodically cleaned.
Which Fish Species Are Suitable?
For beginners, it’s wise to select fish that are not demanding. Native freshwater fish are good choices as they can survive in your pond over the winter. These fish have varying requirements in terms of space and water temperature. They also depend on whether your pond is located in a sunny or shady area.
Suitable options for beginners include goldfish, golden orfes, common roaches, bitterlings, sunfish, and topmouth gudgeons. These species can coexist well together. In a small pond, it’s best not to have more than ten fish. To avoid food competition and excessive waste, the rule of thumb is that a fish measuring ten centimeters requires a cubic meter of water. Larger fish need more space. Generally, it’s advisable to keep fish in groups as they are social animals.
If you plan to introduce bitterlings, make sure to have pond mussels, as bitterlings lay their eggs in mussel gills. For each pair of bitterlings, you’ll need one mussel.
Koi carp are popular but require a lot of space and are not ideal for beginners. They are better suited for ponds without other fish.
Timing for Fish Introduction
Spring is the best time to introduce fish to your garden pond. The gradual warming of the water allows fish to acclimate before the cold season. Fish can also be added during the summer. Fall is not suitable for introducing fish as the rapid cooling of water can be detrimental.
If your pond is newly established with water plants, it’s best to wait approximately twelve weeks before adding fish. Water plants need time to establish themselves. Once this period has passed, fish can be introduced. A balanced biological environment is crucial for the fish to adapt well. The water temperature during fish introduction should be at least 12 degrees Celsius.
Considerations When Purchasing Fish
The health of the fish is vital when introducing them to your pond. Fish health is not always apparent at first glance. Purchase fish from a trusted source, whether it’s a reputable pet store or a well-regarded breeder. Fish given by a friend with a healthy pond can also be reliable. Ensure the fish don’t endure lengthy travel.
For transporting fish to your pond, use a large bucket or transport bags. The container and water volume should increase with the size and number of fish. Adequate air space should be available above the water. If the fish will be in transit for several hours, consider using oxygen instead of air.
Once you’ve brought the fish home, be gentle when introducing them. Check the water temperature one more time, not just in your pond but also in the transport container. The temperature difference between the pond and the container should not exceed 3 degrees Celsius. To help the fish acclimate, place the container in the water so they can adjust to the temperature. Alternatively, you can gradually mix water from the pond into the container until the temperatures match. After about two to three hours, the fish can be introduced to your garden pond.
With the right conditions in place, the fish will adapt quickly. After about a week, they should be accustomed to their new environment. It’s normal for fish to seek hiding places, and water plants provide excellent hiding spots.
If you plan to introduce fish to your garden pond, spring and summer are the best seasons. The water temperature should be at least 12 degrees Celsius. Before adding fish, ensure your pond meets the necessary conditions. Beginner-friendly choices include freshwater fish, as they can survive the winter and are not overly demanding. Be cautious and take your time when introducing fish to your pond.