Oxygen in the pond is essential for fish and other pond inhabitants. Particularly in the summer months when algae growth is rampant, oxygen depletion can become a critical issue. It can be dangerous and lead to a rapid deterioration of water quality, potentially resulting in the death of fish. Various signs indicate an oxygen shortage. There are different measures to quickly remedy oxygen depletion and enrich the water with oxygen. Using aquatic plants and regular pond maintenance can help prevent oxygen depletion.
Measuring Oxygen Levels in the Pond
You can monitor the oxygen levels in your pond using a water test. During the summer months, especially during extended periods of heat, it’s advisable to perform daily checks. Oxygen levels are measured in milligrams per liter (mg/l) and depend on water temperature. With a water temperature of approximately 20 degrees Celsius, the oxygen levels should be above 8 mg/l to ensure there is sufficient oxygen for all pond inhabitants. If oxygen levels drop below 8 mg/l, you must enrich the water with oxygen. During extended heatwaves, oxygen levels can decrease rapidly, posing a serious threat to pond life.
Causes of Oxygen Depletion in the Pond
Oxygen depletion in your garden pond can have various causes. Identifying the causes allows you to take appropriate countermeasures to prevent future oxygen depletion. Oxygen levels decrease with rising water temperature, making the risk of oxygen depletion highest during prolonged summer heatwaves. However, weather conditions and temperature are not the only factors influencing oxygen levels.
Excessive Fish Population
An overpopulation of fish can quickly lead to oxygen depletion. The oxygen requirements vary depending on the fish species. It’s essential to observe the maximum number of fish of a specific species that can be accommodated per cubic meter of water. It’s advisable to have multiple fish species in the pond that coexist well, but you should keep only a few individuals of each species. A sudden and severe oxygen depletion can result in the rapid death of fish. Even a minor oxygen deficiency can lead to fish illnesses.
Insufficient Aquatic Plants
Aquatic plants are essential oxygen producers and should be present in every garden pond. Pay attention to the recommendations regarding the space required for different types of aquatic plants. If the plants are still small because you recently created the pond, there is a risk of oxygen depletion. Aquatic plants engage in photosynthesis and release oxygen. However, they cease oxygen production at night as photosynthesis only occurs in the presence of light. Therefore, oxygen levels in the pond are lowest during the morning hours when the fish have already consumed a significant portion of the oxygen. Plants known for high oxygen production include:
Shoreline plants are also crucial as they contribute to oxygen enrichment and provide shade.
Excessive Aquatic Plant Growth
Having too many aquatic plants in your pond can also lead to oxygen depletion. Ensure you do not plant the vegetation too closely in the pond, and observe the recommended spacing depending on the plant species. As a general rule, the plants should cover about two-thirds of the water surface.
Formation of Sludge
Sludge forms due to fish excretions, decaying plant material, fallen leaves, flower pollen, and other impurities, filamentous algae, and uneaten fish food. Sludge promotes algae growth and depletes oxygen from the pond. A high amount of sludge can result in an unpleasant odor and water quality deterioration. To prevent this, it’s essential to remove impurities and filamentous algae during the summer months. Conducting pond cleaning twice a year helps counteract sludge formation. Additionally, you can use a sludge vacuum during the summer.
Recognizing Oxygen Depletion in the Pond
You can identify oxygen depletion by various indicators. A deterioration in water quality, leading to cloudy water and possibly foul odors, is a clear sign of oxygen depletion. Algae growth is favored. Increased algae growth can signal oxygen depletion. The behavior of the fish can also indicate oxygen depletion. Fish may surface more frequently to gulp for air. They open their mouths to take in oxygen from the air. Fish breathe faster and extend their gills. In the case of severe oxygen depletion, fish become increasingly lethargic to conserve energy and may eat less.
Immediate Actions for Oxygen Depletion
If you notice oxygen depletion, it’s essential to act quickly to restore oxygen levels in your pond. If you have a pond pump, you should turn it on immediately. An air pump with an airstone is also suitable for delivering fine, bubbly air into the pond. You can also use multiple pond pumps in parallel. A dedicated oxygen pump is also a sensible choice.
Oxygen tablets or oxygen granules provide rapid relief as they dissolve within minutes. It’s recommended to have oxygen tablets or granules on hand for quick action in the event of oxygen depletion. Additionally, you should add fresh tap water to the pond. Remove a portion of the existing water and replenish it with tap water. All three measures should be implemented simultaneously to ensure an adequate oxygen supply for your fish.
Increasing Oxygen Levels with an Oxydator
Immediate actions provide a short-term oxygen boost to your garden pond. However, the added oxygen can be quickly consumed. As an interim solution, you can use an Oxydator, which operates without cables or electricity. This option is suitable for cases where aquatic plants are still small and do not produce sufficient oxygen. The Oxydator employs a cartridge containing hydrogen peroxide. After several weeks, you’ll need to replace the
cartridge, which is indicated when the Oxydator reaches the water’s surface. Hydrogen peroxide diffuses into the water and decomposes into oxygen without leaving chemical residues. It is safe for plants, fish, and other pond inhabitants. Position the Oxydator at the deepest point in the shallow water zone.
Enhancing Oxygen Levels with a Pond Aerator
To continuously enrich the water with oxygen, you can use a pond aerator. A pond filter is also essential, and it’s advisable to operate a filter and a pond aerator in parallel. The size of the pond aerator should be tailored to your pond’s dimensions. In some cases, a pond aerator may include an oxygen pump, ensuring efficient gas exchange.
Maintaining Good Water Quality with a Pond Filter
A pond filter is vital for maintaining good water quality, but it must be matched to the size of your pond. Biological pond filters work with filter bacteria. For larger ponds, a pond filtration system based on the step principle with overflows is suitable. Such a filtration system provides movement and constantly enriches the water with oxygen. It does not result in additional electricity costs as oxygen is generated within the overflows.
Increased Oxygen Levels with Water Features
Water features not only enhance the aesthetics of your pond but also enrich the water with oxygen. There are numerous types of water features or fountains available. Another option for increasing oxygen levels is to create artificial waterfalls, which are suitable for larger ponds. A stream is also an excellent means of boosting oxygen levels in the pond.
Oxygen depletion in a garden pond typically occurs during the summer months when water temperatures are high. Insufficient aquatic plants or an excess of fish in your pond can also contribute to oxygen depletion. Since oxygen depletion poses a significant risk to fish, it’s essential to regularly monitor oxygen levels. Immediate actions, such as using oxygen tablets, a pond pump, and adding tap water, can alleviate the situation. To ensure a continuous supply of oxygen, it’s advisable to use both a pond filter and a pond aerator.